Archive for the ‘Science’ Category


I decided to continue the topic about Love and why for so many people it is not easy to experience love… Couple months ago on one of the forums that i sometimes visit, me and couple other girls decided to talk as to why it is so difficult for us to fall in love and to say that we love. Usually we a driven by other part to respond, “Honey, i love you”, he says – what is there for the girl to answer? “me too Honey…”, she says – but does she really mean it?  So in our research of this topic we found out that 96% of the time after the “love confession” – we run, we break up the relationship, we just push that person away. Why does that happen? Is it soviet, “under iron curtain” education that we were susceptible to, so did it influenced us, made us “bitchy” or is there more to it? Most of us turn our hearts “off” and try as hard as we can to not fall in love and stay clear minded, and if we do fall in love it scares us because it makes us “weak” so we run from love, we push it away.

And as my curiosity never stops, i decided to research all the psychology books and other forums to see what others say about this, since i was sure we are not the only ones feeling that way… so here is what i found. I found out that there is a  term called “philophobia” – it is a fear of emotional attachment; fear of being in, or falling in love. Medical science defines philophobia as an abnormal, unwarranted and persistent fear of falling in love. Its name comes from Greek roots, “philo” meaning love and “phobia” meaning fear of. This fear of love isn’t merely a distressing emotional condition; it can result in actual physical symptoms, and may even heighten a person’s alienation from family, friends, coworkers and neighbors.


The fear of love is truly an enigma in contemporary psychology. Human beings are the most social of animals, and yet the prospect of being loved – of expressing love to another, and thereby being emotionally vulnerable – evokes enough fear in some people that they run screaming for the nearest exit.

When i started thinking about this, i recalled an element of philophobia showed up during the first season of the hit TV show, “Glee”. i do not know if anyone watched it, so i will try to describe:  a high school club teacher, Will Schuester, has a date with Emma Pillsbury, the high school counselor who suffers from obsessive-compulsive disorder and few other phobias, nonetheless she insists that she loves Will and wants to make love to him. However after seeing the two in romantic contact to the tune of Madonna’s hit song “like a virgin”, viewers later learn that Emma ran screaming from Wills apartment before they could consummate their love. A distraught departure from potential partner is certainly one of the signs of philophobia. Emma;s character exhibited some of the classic signs of the conflicted emotions endured by many people who suffer from fear of love and/or intimacy. As i read, they can experience a momentary exhilaration when they think of the prospects of giving or receiving love, than, at the crucial moment, philophobics become overwhelmed by their fears of what the previous emotions imply, such as the loss of emotional control and the vulnerability of physical contact.

I have read that some people have such severe philophobia that they cannot  even get as close to the potential lover as Emma came to Will. They suffer the classic reactions of many people with persistent, unreasonable fears including dizziness, shortness of breath, nausea, dry mouth, sweating, trembling, weeping, panic attacks and roller-coaster emotions. These physical symptoms signal that something has gone wrong emotionally, that the body is responding to a mildly cautionary situation with an extreme expression of the “fight or fight” reaction.


In other words, in these severe cases, the mind is thinking that falling in love poses a life-or-death threat to such degree that it automatically prepares the body to fight for survival. this excessive emotional response forms one of the clearest signs that a person is in grip of a phobia, in this case, the fear of love.

It’s important to understand that the fear is a normal human emotion. On fact, although it generally causes an unpleasant experience, fear is helpful emotion. It heightens people’s alertness to potential dangers and releases adrenaline useful for “fight or fight”. However, when fear becomes debilitating in the way we’re discussing here, it becomes an obstacle to life and not an ally.  I have seen couples where i know for sure, that the woman pushed away a person she really loved, because she was scared of love, and married the person she chose based on pure calculation. Yes, no doubt, sometimes marriages based on calculation survive longer than the ones based on love, but this is topic for discussion for another time and another post 🙂


Despite what some people may think, there is no way to “just get over” severe phobias such as the fear of being in love, or falling in love. Even though the quest for love is an essential part of human life, people who develop a persistent, unwarranted fear of relationship often need professional help to be able to engage in normal relationship.”

Yes, as any phobias it can be treated with therapy, but what if you do not want to go to therapy, or you case of anxiety as not as severe as it will require therapy… so here is what i found interesting suggestions  on wikihow site…

  • Understand that the feeling of love is permissible. Let yourself be overcome by feelings of affection, care, intensity, and warmth. These feelings won’t destroy you––they are good, positive feelings. And if you let your own feelings of love show, it is so much easier for the other person to feel safe about reciprocating their mutual affection. Sometimes it is as much about you making it obvious that love has a place in your life as it is about expecting others to take care of your fragile heart––you’re not alone in feeling worried about love!
  • Rid yourself of past shadows. When you start feeling great affection for someone but the ghost of love gone wrong in the past starts fluttering by, tell yourself that this is a different situation and a different person. Remind yourself that you’re a wiser, more emotionally healthy self too. Emotionally healthy people learn from the lessons in the past, then move forward leaving the past behind. Make good now and trust this new beginning, as it is going to be worth it for both of you.
    • If you find that the past colors everything you’re doing in the present, then it might be time to get some talk therapy with someone you trust. Sometimes it takes talking it through to form a clearer picture of your fear and sense of loss.
    • Some people are not inhibited by the past so much as by the future. Such people constantly worry about how their future instead of living in the now––this can put the brakes on love too because unnecessary energy is spent on “what ifs”, such as “what if this doesn’t work out and I’ve wasted all my energy on building this relationship?”. If this is you, remind yourself that time spent building a relationship is never wasted, even if the person passes through your life, it still matters at the time and teaches you things about yourself and others.
  • Face your fears. If you feel a sense of suffocation, loss of self, or disillusionment about love, then you probably have a tougher road ahead than a person who fears a repeat of the past. For you, the fear is about losing yourself, your individuality. Think about the past and anyone who may have made you feel this way, suffocated, watched over, criticized too much. Put that memory into its place and recognize that that person or situation is very different from a love in which two people at an equal level care about one another and make mature decisions together.
  • When fear of love grips you, it helps to set very clear but friendly ground rules about yourself from the start of a loving relationship. Let the other person know that you will always feel a need for space, time alone, and opportunities to do things separate from your relationship but that this does not impact your love and care for this person. Rather, make it clear that this is a healthy way for a couple to be together, always growing and being individuals as much as being part of a couple.In relationships you can have alone time and you both need to have the understanding that nothing is wrong with having time to yourself.
  • Take the plunge slowly. You’re never going to be the type who sees fireworks and feels love at first sight––you’re too cautious and need to reflect. However, this is a positive, not a negative––only fools rush in where angels fear to tread. Take your time developing your loving relationship, and be mature, honest, straightforward and open with your partner. The love that flourishes from this slowly-does-it approach is often an enduring and respectful one. Moreover, slowly developed love tends to be more forgiving of the other person’s ways than a lightning bolt love that unravels when all the habits and foibles of the other person begin to show
  • Don’t give up your other passions. Being in a loving relationship means being in a supportive one. It is not about being changed by another person, or trying to change someone. If you fear that the person you love might end up wanting to change something about you, deal with this early on. Always make it clear that you come with the fox terriers, the summer vacation hunting trips, the night-out-with-the-girls once a week, the desire to never have children, the weekends locked away reading a book. If you have passions that define you, a partner who seeks to take them away from you will leave both of you unhappy and if this is what is stopping you from falling in love, return to the mantra of being open, clear, and up front from the start. Now that all this is out of the way, you can start open up and to fall in love and finally enjoy the journey to self-discovery that includes discovering someone else who cares for you. Good luck leaving fear behind!





Intuition, some people think it is a gift, especially women 🙂 some think it is the a trick of our hearts, or a soul speaking, or God is putting an answer in our hearts to our questions, others think it is just an algorithm that our brain records like a “tape recorder” and in the right moment we “feel” intuitively… Anyway, i believe there is no definitive answer to such question, each person will believe in whatever suits them… but it is definitely interesting to read about different research and different opinions… Here are some articles and some quotes that interested me, and i though they might interest someone else that has such a curious mind like me 🙂



Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without inference and/or the use of reason. “The word ‘intuition’ comes from the Latin word ‘intueri’ which is usually translated as ‘to look inside’ or ‘to contemplate’.” Intuition provides us with beliefs that we cannot justify in every case. For this reason, it has been the subject of study in psychology, as well as a topic of interest in the supernatural. The “right brain” is popularly associated with intuitive processes such as aesthetic abilities. 

In Carl Jung‘s theory of the ego, described in 1921 in Psychological Types, intuition was an “irrational function”, opposed most directly by sensation, and opposed less strongly by the “rational functions” of thinking and feeling. Jung defined intuition as “perception via the unconscious”: using sense-perception only as a starting point, to bring forth ideas, images, possibilities, ways out of a blocked situation, by a process that is mostly unconscious.

Jung said that a person in whom intuition was dominant, an “intuitive type”, acted not on the basis of rational judgment but on sheer intensity of perception. An extraverted intuitive type, “the natural champion of all minorities with a future”, orients to new and promising but unproven possibilities, often leaving to chase after a new possibility before old ventures have borne fruit, oblivious to his or her own welfare in the constant pursuit of change. An introverted intuitive type orients by images from the unconscious, ever exploring the psychic world of the archetypes, seeking to perceive the meaning of events, but often having no interest in playing a role in those events and not seeing any connection between the contents of the psychic world and him- or herself. Jung thought that extraverted intuitive types were likely entrepreneurs, speculators, cultural revolutionaries, often undone by a desire to escape every situation before it becomes settled and constraining—even repeatedly leaving lovers for the sake of new romantic possibilities. His introverted intuitive types were likely mystics, prophets, or cranks, struggling with a tension between protecting their visions from influence by others and making their ideas comprehensible and reasonably persuasive to others—a necessity for those visions to bear real fruit.

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), first published in 1944, attempted to provide an empirical method of identifying a person’s dominant ego function, in terms of Carl Jung’s theory. Beginning in the 1960s, scientists performed studies to see if MBTI results were consistent with the assumed theory that Jungian functions exist and conflict in such a way that one of them must be dominant and the others suppressed. Every study has found that instead of people’s MBTI scores clustering around two opposite poles, such as intuition vs. sensation, with few people scoring in the middle, people’s scores actually cluster around the middle of each scale in a bell curve. This suggests that the Jungian polarities do not exist. Most contemporary psychological research questions the existence of Jungian functions and the MBTI’s ability to tell which function is dominant.

In more-recent psychology, intuition can encompass the ability to know valid solutions to problems and decision making. For example, the recognition primed decision (RPD) model explains how people can make relatively fast decisions without having to compare options. Gary Klein found that under time pressure, high stakes, and changing parameters, experts used their base of experience to identify similar situations and intuitively choose feasible solutions. Thus, the RPD model is a blend of intuition and analysis. The intuition is the pattern-matching process that quickly suggests feasible courses of action. The analysis is the mental simulation, a conscious and deliberate review of the courses of action. According to the renowned neuropsychologist and neurobiologist Roger Wolcott Sperry though, intuition is a right-brain activity while factual and mathematical analysis is a left-brain activity.

The reliability of one’s intuition depends greatly on past knowledge and occurrences in a specific area. For example, someone who has had more experiences with children will tend to have a better instinct or intuition about what they should do in certain situations with them. This is not to say that one with a great amount of experience is always going to have an accurate intuition (because some can be biased); however, the chances of it being more reliable are definitely amplified.

Intuition is commonly discussed in writings of spiritual thought. Contextually, there is often an idea of a transcendent and more qualitative mind of one’s spirit towards which a person strives, or towards which consciousness evolves. Typically, intuition is regarded as a conscious commonality between earthly knowledge and the higher spiritual knowledge and appears as flashes of illumination. It is asserted that by definition intuition cannot be judged by logical reasoning.

Thomas Merton discussed variations of intuition in a series of essays. In describing aesthetic intuition he asserted that the artist has a subjective identification with an object that is both heightened and intensified and thereby “sees” the object’s spiritual reality. In discussing Zen meditation he asserted that a direct intuition is derived through a “struggle against conceptual knowledge.” An end result is “the existent knows existence, or ‘isness,’ while completely losing sight of itself as a ‘knowing subject.'”

Rudolf Steiner postulated that intuition is the third of three stages of higher knowledge, coming after imagination and inspiration, and is characterized by a state of immediate and complete experience of, or even union with, the object of knowledge without loss of the subject’s individual ego.

Dismissing the notion that intuitive impulses arise supernaturally, one is left to assume they originate with the many innate human senses. Remnants of perception, such as a movement occurring out of the “corner of your eye” or subtle sound that would normally be ignored as background noise, could occur simultaneously. While these events could be filtered as irrelevant by the mind, their coincidental synchronicity could lead to sudden assumptions about one’s surroundings, such as the feeling of being watched or followed.

Intuitive abilities were quantitatively tested at Yale University in the 1970s. While studying nonverbal communication, researchers noted that some subjects were able to read nonverbal facial cues before reinforcement occurred. In employing a similar design, they noted that highly intuitive subjects made decisions quickly but could not identify their rationale. Their level of accuracy, however, did not differ from that of nonintuitive subjects.

Law enforcement officers often claim to observe suspects and immediately “know” that they possess a weapon or illicit narcotic substances. Often unable to articulate why they reacted or what prompted them at the time of the event, they sometimes retrospectively can plot their actions based upon what had been clear and present danger signals. Such examples liken intuition to “gut feelings” and when viable illustrate preconscious activity.

Intuition is a combination of historical (empirical) data, deep and heightened observation, and an ability to cut through the thickness of surface reality. Intuition is like a slow motion machine that captures data instantaneously and hits you like a ton of bricks. Intuition is a knowing, a sensing that is beyond the conscious understanding — a gut feeling. Intuition is not pseudo-science.
– Abella Arthur

Intuition (is) perception via the unconscious
– Carl Gustav Jung

INTUITION may be defined as understanding or knowing without conscious recourse to thought, observation or reason. Some see this unmediated process as somehow mystical while others describe intuition as being a response to unconscious cues or implicitly apprehended prior learning.
– Dr. Jason Gallate & Ms Shannan Keen BA




I have been traveling recently, and had a very long layover in Frankfurt, where i stumbled across a very interesting magazine called: ” Scientific american mind: behavior, brain science, insights”. there i found a lot of very interesting and educational articles that is written in a very understanding for nonscientific mind person 🙂

So here is one of the articles i decided to share today:

“Men and Women Gauge Risk Differently, whose strategy is better depends on what is at stake”

Small gains now or big rewards later? The conundrum plagues every decision we make, wether we are investing or dieting. Now researchers find that men and women use different strategies to make such choices.

Researchers use gambling to understand what we do when immediate rewards pitted against long term gains. Most of the games find no major differences in how men and women play. An experimental setup called the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), however, finds consistent – and large – differences between the behavior of men and women: men are better at figuring out the strategy that reaps the bigger payoff.

Players are giving 4 decks of cards, and they choose one card at a time from any deck they want. Each card has a win or loss amount on it, and each deck has its own unique payout pattern. Two of the decks contain cards that dole out large or frequent rewards, but consistently choosing cards from these decks leads to loses in the long run. The other two decks provide a modest amount of cash per win but less loss over time, so they offer long term gains for both players who pick from them the most frequently. These patterns are carefully obscured so that the winning strategy is not obvious.

A review published in February in Behavioral Brain Research finds that men focus on the big picture, watching the their total earnings and quickly homing in on which of the decks will lead to gains the long run. Women focus on details such as the frequencies of wins, missing the overall impact each deck has on their total balance. Sensitive to losses, women tend to switch to different deck as soon as they are pinged with a setback, making it more difficult for them to identify the prize deck.

The strategies reflect underlying differences in activation in the orbitofrontal  cortex, a region involved in decision making and the associated expectation of positive or negative consequences. During the task women have more activity in the medial part of this region, involved in regular patterns and immediate reward, whereas men preferentially engage the top, dorsal area, implicated in irregular patterns and long-term reward.

“When people think women make errors in these tasks, it’s more that they are gathering information”, says lead author Ruud van den Bos, a neurologist at Utrecht University in Netherlands. Women’s detailed exploration makes them more  attuned to changes. If, for example, the rules of wins and losses for the decks were switched midtask, women would clue in to the new patterns more quickly than men. Van den Bos says the IGT happens to be designed so that long term strategy is best, but in decisions where knowing the details counts, women may have advantage.


Because real decisions are more complex than lab games, van den Bos emphasizes that neither strategy is inherently better; both are necessary and useful in daily life. He also points out that the IGT some women perform like men, and visa versa. The dividing line is often blurry when it comes to female- and male-typical behaviors. ” By disentangling the biological from the societal, we can understand how differences can be turned into advantages,” van den Bos says.  (article by Luciana Gravotta)

Eyes. When we meet new people the first think we do is look in their eyes.

People have been fascinated with eyes for centuries! The drawings of the eyes in the Egyptian culture, The Wadjet – “Eye of Horus” (“all seeing eye”), “Eye of Ra”

Here are some interesting facts about human eye:
The human eye blinks an average of 4,200,000 times a year.
It’s impossible to sneeze with your eyes open.
Our eyes are always the same size from birth, but our nose and ears never stop growing.
Blinking helps to wash tears over our eyeballs. That keeps them clean and moist. Also, if something is about to hit our eye, we will blink automatically.
Our body has some natural protection for our eyes. Our eyelashes help to keep dirt out of our eyes. Our eyebrows are made to keep sweat from running into our eyes.
The shark cornea has been used in eye surgery, since its cornea is similar to a human cornea.
The number one cause of blindness in adults is diabetes.
The eyeball of a human weighs approximately 28 grams.
The eye of a human can distinguish 500 shades of the gray.
The cornea is the only living tissue in the human body that does not contain any blood vessels.
Sailors once thought that wearing a gold earring would improve their eyesight.
Research has indicated that a tie that is on too tight cam increase the risk of glaucoma in men.
People generally read 25% slower from a computer screen compared to paper.
Men are able to read fine print better than women can.
All babies are color blind when they are born.
Babies’ eyes do not produce tears until the baby is approximately six to eight weeks old.
The reason why your nose gets runny when you are crying is because the tears from the eyes drain into the nose.
The most common injury caused by cosmetics is to the eye by a mascara wand.
Some people start to sneeze if they are exposed to sunlight or have a light shined into their eye.
Around the pupil is a colored muscle called the “iris.” Our eyes may be BLUE, BROWN, GREEN, GRAY OR BLACK, because that is the color of the iris.
* Our eyes have many parts. The black part on the front of our eye is called the “pupil.” It is really a little hole that opens into the back part of our eyes.

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Genetics of eye color:

The color of eyes is an interesting topic. In years past a brown eyed child seemed like an unlikely outcome from two blue eyed parents, but as we learn more about genetics we learn that eye color isn’t as simple as blue + blue = blue. Let’s learn more about the genetics of eye color.
Caucasian children are usually born with unpigmented, blue eyes. As the child develops, the cells begin to produce melanin which eventually determines the final color of the eyes as well as the skin and hair. Eye colors range from brown, which is the most common, to green, the most rare, with shades of blue, amber, hazel and gray somewhere in between. Eye color is generally determined by the amount of pigment in the eye and this is decided by our genetic makeup long before we are born!!
here are several genes which influence the color of a person’s eyes. As a general rule brown eyed genes are often dominant and blue eyed genes tend to be recessive. These factors of genetic dominance are added to the complex genetic equation that our bodies use to determine our eye color
Our genes are made up of two alleles. We receive one allele from our mother and a second from our father. Dominant alleles are typically shown as an uppercase letter and recessive are shown as a lowercase letter.
Let’s say there was a gene that determined eye color. A B allele would confer brown eyes and a b allele would result in blue eyes. Someone with BB would have brown eyes while another person with Bb would also have brown eyes, although possibly lighter. Finally a person with bb would have blue eyes.
But, eye color isn’t that simple. Multiple genes play a role in determining eye color. While the B gene we just talked about might play one role, there may be a second or even third gene involved in the process.
n a second eye color gene let’s say that G confers green or hazel eyes and g results in lighter eyes. In simple terms in one gene the B allele confers brown eye color, and the recessive b allele gives blue eyes. In another gene G confers green or hazel eyes and g would confer lighter eyes. In this instance B would be dominant over all the other alleles and the eyes would be brown. If you are homozygous (with identical genes) to the B alleles, the eyes would be darker brown than if you are heterozygous (with dissimilar pairs of genes). If you are homozygous for the G allele in the absence of B, your eyes would be darker, or more hazel, than if you had just one G allele.
If one BG or a Bg allele crosses with any other BG, Bg, bG or bg allele then the result will be brown eyes, but in varying shades. BBGG would create the darkest brown eyes. bbGG would result in very green/hazel eyes. Green eyes need a bG allele to cross with a bG or a bg and the darkest green would be created with a bG bG cross. True blue eyes can only be produced from a genotype bbgg.
Returning to the first example of two blue eyed parents producing a brown eyed child, probably the parents were bbGg with a shift to the lighter side of hazel influencing the shade of blue. The child is bbGG and the presence of two G alleles confers a brown color in this instance.
To further complicate the issue, both genetic and environmental influences also affect the eye color to a degree too. Pregnancy, puberty and trauma can also see a change in the color of a person’s eyes. Eye color is complicated.
Blue eyesBlue eyes have become increasingly rare in American children in just the last few decades. As blue eyes are recessive, it needed parents of English, Irish and North European descent to pass on these traits. Increasingly, immigration has brought a wider pool of genes which are more dominant, with the resulting decline in blue eyes. Thirty years ago about 30% of American babies had blue eyes; now that statistic has changed to about 1 in 6.
Researchers believe that all blue eyed people share one common ancestor. It is believed that the mutation that caused blue eyes occurred sometime between 6,000-10,000 years ago. Isn’t it strange to think that all blue eyed people are somehow related?
Brown eyesBrown eyes are predominant in humans and in many populations it is the only iris color. More than half the world’s population has brown eyes and 90% of the world has brown, hazel or amber eyes which are all variants of brown eyes. Dark brown eyes are prominent in East Asia and contain large amounts of melanin within the iris.
Although brown eyes are predominant and are the main eye color worldwide, in some parts of the world they are very rare. In Iceland 80% of the population has green or blue eyes.
Gray eyes
Gray eyes are darker than true blue eyes and have less melanin than blue eyes. Gray eyes are predominant in Russia, Finland , Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The gray eye color is determined by the density of proteins and the amount of melanin in the iris. Gray eyes are influenced by the light and may appear to change color in different lighting, or to reflect makeup and clothing colors.
Green eyesGreen eyes have moderate or low amounts of melanin and are often associated with red hair. Only 2% of the world has green eyes and strangely they are more prevalent in women. They are common in the Icelandic population and those with Celtic and German ancestors.
Hazel eyesHazel eyes are defined as being the color midway between the lightest blue and the darkest brown eyes. Hazel eyes have a large amount of melanin in the anterior border of the iris. In different lights they may appear to change from light brown to medium gold or even dark green. Sometimes they have a multicolored iris, lightest in the center of the iris and dark brown or green on the outer part.
Why are my baby’s eyes two different colors?
Most babies, especially those born to Caucasian parents, are born with varying shades of blue eyes. The eyes may stay blue for as long as three years, until the melanin pigment develops in the eye (if it is going to). By the time the child is five years old their eye color will be pretty well defined. However, there are also times when babies are born with two distinctly different colored eyes. This may occur for a number of reasons including:
• Local trauma either while the baby was still in the womb or shortly after birth
• Faulty developmental pigment transport
• A genetic disorder (benign)
• Inflammation
• Diffuse nevus of the iris (this is technically a freckle)
• Horner’s syndrome, a potentially serious condition
Why do our eyes change color?
In babies, the change in eye color is a result of the development of pigmentation. For adults the change in eye color could be a warning sign of some serious medical conditions. As many as 15% of Caucasian adults have some change in their eye color as they age, typically from darker to lighter, but if an adult’s eyes change color dramatically, suddenly or the change is noted in only one eye, he or she should seek immediate medical attention. It could be the result of conditions such as:
• Fuch’s heterochromic iridocyclitis
• Horner’s syndrome
• Pigmentary glaucoma
Throughout our lifetime, the human eye may appear to change colors, even if the effect is only slight, because of lighting, mood and to some extent, what we are wearing. The iris, which is the colored part of the eye, is a muscle which in part controls the size and shape of the pupil. The pupil is wider in times of low light and is narrower in times of bright light. When the iris expands or contracts around the pupil, the pigments of its surface are either spread out or compressed together affecting the color that we perceive. In addition, certain emotions may cause the pupils to dilate and thus change the color of our eyes. What we wear doesn’t actually cause a physical change in the color of our eyes; however the perception of our eye color can be affected by the clothing, makeup or jewelry that we are wearing.
The future of eye color genetics
Researchers are working on interesting ways to use DNA to determine a person’s eye color. This information could be particularly useful during criminal investigations. There may even come a time when science can tell you what color your baby’s eyes will be while he or she is still in the womb.
New technologies are also being developed to change eye color, without changing genetics. One eye doctor believes that he can permanently change brown eyes to blue by using a special laser to remove the pigment from the eye.
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